The reductionist approach in science (as in many other aspects of knowledge) suffers from numerous shortcomings and deficiencies, while in the biomedical sciences (in which genes are to be play-legion) dominates this view . The analysis of our microbiomes ( bacteria that we treasure in our bodies) begins to put into question such a philosophy, emerging another diametrically opposite of how an organism . We speak ofholism . For many it will be new, however here we come repeatedly stressing about this for almost seven years! You are correct in our views on the effects of ladrillazo and real estate speculation, political corruption, the first generation biofuels (agroenergy), unsustainable economic development Spanish etc.., Long before researchers in the most reputable scientific journals , the general press, and our “wise policy” would realize the negative effects of such myopic approaches. And frankly I challenge anyone to refute us. I refer to the evidence: the testimonies in our post. Not that we’re smart, but like sheep, the vast majority of the scientific community continued well-trodden paths, without weighing the importance of bold assumptions and perspectives treasure in the progress of science .
For years now we argued that the individuals are ecosystems , and that life is highly crosslinked requiring a new look Biosphere genetics . Similarly, we note that the pathology learn many things about human diseases . Also I told you once that my first experience as a pathologist (line of research that soon left) taught me that the plant diseases should be studied as an ecosystem , ie a “pathosystem ”: the interaction between plant pathogens, the other organisms of the rhizosphere , the environment and adequate nutrition of the plants under study. A healthy body resist disease better than one who have problems. And in this sense, nothing changes between plant and animal diseases (…) But as a human being is the most animal of all animals in many ways (…).The body of complex organisms continues to be more than a set of nested ecosystems that store, from certain points of view a fractal structure , like everyone else. Well, the press release today that we will show you merely endorse all these conjectures that many experts in biomedicine qualify as bizarre , even though some of his own studies of the guarantee. Let’s see who really poured it bullshit after another: Do we or them?
All complex organisms hoard a plethora of microorganisms within us and without them we could not survive, neither plants nor animals , nor the animals more animals, meaning us . Go analyzing genes and argue that , in one form or another, are responsible for human health continues to be a naive view of nature . According to a study by spreading newsletterScienceDaily, every human body more than 100 treasures trillillones of microbes . They live in different habitats (skin, body orifices, digestive tract, etc.., etc..), each of which can be considered a distinct ecosystem or other global subsystems , as appropriate, with our “gut” one of the most full of bugs. But in addition to that amount regardless of their biodiversity(different roles) as a whole harbor thousands of “species” (ie better varieties, strains, etc.). bacteria. Moreover, if we talk in terms of genes as a whole, ie the so-called microbiome of these bugs, it seems to be 150 times the human genome . In the field of ecology is undisputed that the living things that share a habitat interacting in multiple ways. Should the body be different in this respect? Obviously not! Moreover, since a few years ago recognized that metabolic networks, ecological, social interactions, and included the “network of networks” (ie Internet)treasure strikingly similar patterns of organization. In other words, all of which conform to standards similar mathematical, such as for example the proportion of connectivity between theirnodes . Possibly, many bacterial organisms that live inside us, can be considered key species in the functioning of the body-ecosystem, so that when they disappear or fail “somehow” its role, our bodies suffer dysfunctions and diseases. However mentar not forget to the skin in which we live, as in the rhizosphere . For example, the human epidermis contains at least 182 species of bacteria , treasuring each individual unique assemblages of them (so much so that some scientists argue that it would be be better fingerprints to detect our identity that we have been using our anatomy).
Consequently, any stress and environmental impact that our skin suffers (read for example the enormous air pollution in megacities like Mexico City Madrid, and Barcelona among many others)can affect virtually unknown a plethora of dysfunctions and infections among citizens . And what about food? . all our nutrients pass through the huge community of microorganisms in mutual interaction with human cells. And in a network (we speak of metabolic-ecological ), when altering certain nodes (whether genuinely human cells and bacteria with which they coexist) our body suffers in one way or another. So that can occur when we eat junk food (that ” fast food ” we eat a fool, especially younger ones, or those like me or do not have time to cook).
In light of this, The comments made here, in the press release below reproduce those made by respondents are craving crampons. Biomedical research must imperatively change of perspective . As much as strut, the “touch genes” that are created the mambo kings, not enough to glimpse the tip of the iceberg with its reductionist research of what actually happens in our bodies.
If man is an ecosystem, is required ecological medicine, or rather a medical ecology . To achieve this mindset must be changed drastically in order to be able to cherish a holistic view of how the human being, capable of facing the disease seriously and understand our health, ie the whole body.
Finally, we reiterate that the vision of the evolution neodarviniana is very bad off if one includes in-depth studies of this type. Complex organisms are not any evolutionary success is whether, because of bacterial communities need to survive in the biosphere. The evolution goes on overlapping structures to existing complex, not replacing them. But without the first everything would collapse. And I wonder : What is the evolutionary success?. Or hierra current science, or we should just eliminate this concept from our vocabulary, or recognize that bacteria (broadly speaking) are the queens of the biosphere.
The Human Genome Project sequenced the genetic information contained in 10% of the cells that form the human body. The remaining 90% are not human cells but a true ecosystem of a hundred trillion bacteria in our body .
Are called microbiome , and science is discovering every day new evidence that are essential to our survival . As explained by Dr. Francisco Guarner, responsible group of Digestive Physiology and Pathophysiology Vall d’Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), ”the microbiome is considered as an organ in itself.”
The alterations that occur in this population of microorganisms have serious health consequences, in fact so much influence in the body that may modify the behavior and brain development . Studies have shown that laboratory animals that grow in total absence of bacteria have a poor body development, a distinct and immature brain and the immune system is incomplete. The surprising “ and one of the reasons justifying the microbiome as a body to consider , “says Guarner,” is that if these animals were transplanted flora of normal individuals return to normal. ”
These results can not yet be extrapolated to humans, but “there is indirect evidence that the microbiome affects our brain chemistry,” says researcher Dr. Elena Verdu and who has participated in these experiments with mice at McMaster University (Canada) . ”It is possible that these mechanisms are involved in diseases like autism,” she notes.
The gastrointestinal disorders are among the complications experienced by people with autism and undermine their quality of life . The ultimate cause of this association is still unknown, but researchers at Columbia University in the USA, have recently discovered what could be one key difference: many autistic children have a type of bacteria in their intestinal flora than the rest children do not have .
This particular microorganism belonging to the genus Sutterella and, although their presence is associated with inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis, according to Brenda Williams, author of the study, “there is still much work to do before understanding the role of Sutterella in autism . ”
The fact that a large proportion of autistic patients have altered the type and number of species of intestinal flora is a situation that still do not know what is first, the chicken or the egg . As said Verdú, ”brain-gut connection is bi-directional” and appears promising.
And is that a proper intestinal flora generates not only vitamins and amino acids essential for the survival of the human body, but also stimulates the immune system . Most immunocompetent cells coexist with bacteria in the gut wall and is mainly where contact with foreign antigens and the system learns to distinguish self from others.
Not yet known whether alterations in gastrointestinal autism are more than symptomatic, but in other cases they are. In patients with Crohn’s disease or multiple sclerosis, they do have an autoimmune basis, the intestinal flora is altered, and has been shown that, enriching, will improve their neurological disorders .
One option is to restore therapeutic study the bacterial population and alter the patient’s immune system by consuming probiotics or certain helminth worms (parasitic) non-pathogenic. Although this last option does not sound delicious, and results have been obtained in several patients and the U.S. have begun clinical trials in people with autism and patients with andmultiple sclerosis or severe food allergies . Anyway, Guarner believes that, although the results of treatment with helminths are promising, “ the solution to these diseases needs to better understand the microbiome “ .
Since l is known to impact the microbiome in the human body, research on how to alter it and get beneficial effects not only advances in the field of digestive diseases, but in many others, such as cardiology. has long been known that patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes have more cardiovascular risk than healthy people and also high levels of leptin, a hormone involved in metabolism and appetite. A recent study has implemented a fact that was already known that the presence of Lactobacillus plantarum reduces the secretion of leptin. The results show that rats fed a probiotic containing the bacteria synthesize less leptin and this could be reflected in the decrease in the number and severity of stroke .
Dr. Abel Mariné, an expert in nutrition and food security of the University of Barcelona , believes that, although there seems to be a relationship between obesity and gut flora “and this study is interesting, we must not lose sight that is made from animals laboratory and has been verified and reproducible, “he explains. Anyway, “probiotics should not be confused with medicines because of its beneficial effects are mild and long term,” says Marine.
A by genes
The next big step after achieving biomedical sequence the human genome is the European project MetaHIT (Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract). His goal is ambitious: to decipher the genetic material of more than 150,000 different species of microbes that colonize the human body . Guarner, Spanish official of MetaHIT, explains: “ We will generate a catalog of symbiotic bacteria that live and participate in our bodies, their characteristics and functions . ”
Microbiome research is not easy, “since most of the bacteria of the gut ecosystem that are needed with the other to grow, “explains Guarner,” and, therefore, do not grow in laboratory culture conditions ” . The solution to this challenge has been the metagenomics , ie, applying techniques of molecular biology and gene sequencing for large databases.
This project, involving eight European countries, has been running since 2008 and is expected to be completed by June 2012.
So far, the results of the project known MetaHIT are amazing . Researchers have found, for example, that you may qualify for humans as well as by blood, sex and age, where their bacteria . MetaHIT scientists analyzed the intestinal flora of almost 200 people from six different nationalities and found that all s and could be grouped into three distinct types .
This discovery may have or na great impact in medicine because , says geneticist Mani Arumugam, first investigator of these results, “ the intestinal flora interacts directly with drugs and foods we eat and modulates its absorption ”, so I think Arumugam that in the future, it could “custom design diets and drugs” according to the bacterial type to which each person belongs.
The results of the study claim to have countless MetaHIT therapeutic applications. ”The big goal is to understand a human body part not know yet,” says Guarner. ”If we know in detail these two kilos of live bacterial cells in our body, then we can use this knowledge to treat autism, early psychiatric disorders, autoimmune diseases, allergies, metabolic disorders, obesity or type 2 diabetes,” lists .
|Category: Health Science||Tags: ecosystem|