Today we will take account of other news released to great fanfare in the rotary press.This is the i ncremento in emissions of nitrous oxide (a potent greenhouse gas)from European forest soils into the atmosphere . Not address the issue in depth because we treat previously (see related post below) and there is a good blog on the subject of CSIC , whose address is also included. Just show you what the news does not reveal, namely, what is the true significance treasures .
The explanation offered by the original study the Spanish press is bad, while in ScienceDaily (acceptable). Since the dawn of industrial agriculture, the abuses of fertilization of soils have severely damaged the agricultural and pastoral ecosystems. Rarely fertilize forests, however are in one way or another, mostly in the form of depositions atmospheric part of the agricultural and livestock amendments and other from the transport and industri to . This leads to increasing global warming and to increase the loss of soil biodiversity and vegetation . If so, what new treasures the news?
My friend longed Choni, an expert in natural meadows , I said at the beginning of the decade of the 90s of last century, as l I plant ecologists whites were extremely interested in the composition of the hay meadows of the Cantabrian coast and the Pyrenees . When I asked why, she replied that: most of which formerly were scattered in the countries of the European Union had disappeared due to growing foreign varieties and over-paid on the basis of nitrogen and phosphorus. I’m talking about 20 or 25 years .
Well, as I mentioned in another post, pollution is not local, but ends up affecting one way or another, more or less distant ecosystems. A lack of good inventory, members of the IPCC estimates made . Well, in carrying out an inventory-monitoring in the “more or less complete”, the results find that the predictions of the IPCC on emissions of nitrous oxide had been very short. In fact it seems that emits twice the expected. This is it. You can not accuse the group of experts from that organization of the lack of inventory .
Now, I discussed in various post included in our category “ biomass and necromass of the soil”that the stipulations in order to carry out inventories of organic carbon sequestration suffer from serious deficiencies, so that the data underestimate , to a large extent, the actual amounts.Hopefully this time the protocols do not start from misleading premises. But it may well be that other inventories carried out outside Europe and the results were different. We should not accept uncritically and generalize the data from a single inventory, which is extensive .
Finally, for those who may know the language of empire (ie suahili ), I beg you to examine the two versions on the same subject at length (including titles) that I offer below: one of ScienceDaily and the other a Spanish newspaper ( unless from the very bodies of the EU, a press release out so darn bad, but if so writing the newsletter that comes from USA should suffer such deficiencies). I reiterate that the issue will not go into because in the previous post (see below) and the CSIC mented blog will obtain information of much higher quality.
According to new research, emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a greenhouse gas, have soared as a result of reactive nitrogen compounds generated by transport, industry and agriculture .The study, published in the journal Nature and named “European Nitrogen Assessment” (European Nitrogen Assessment , ENA), reveals that the emission of N 2 O from the forest floor is at least two times higher than the figure given by the Group Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
SOURCE | CORDIS News Service R & D Community ; 18/04/2011
The findings, underperforms, also presented on the occasion of the international congress “Nitrogen and Global Change 2011 ‘, held in Edinburgh (United Kingdom) between 11 and 15 April.
The ENA study experts have participated hundred of scientific institutions and political bodies oftwenty-one countries . The data collected indicate that, on average, 4% of reactive nitrogen from the atmosphere is converted to N 2 O is absorbed by the atmosphere . In contrast estimated by the IPCC, a single kilogram of N 2 O has an effect emissions 300 times higher than the same amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) .
Specialists in the field say that l will reactive nitrogen compounds are mostly of anthropogenic origin . Some of it is converted to N 2 O, the third chemical that contributes to the greenhouse effect .
Researchers have observed that in a forest area of 188 million hectares between 1860 and 2000, deposition of reactive nitrogen increased as much as 1.5 million tons per year, equivalent to an annual increase of no less that 8 kg of reactive nitrogen per hectare of forest .
The application of agricultural fertilizers contributes to the increase in reactive nitrogen emitted into the atmosphere. This increase is also attributed to volatilization of ammonia and emissions of N 2 O emissions from biomass burning and fossil fuels .
In addition to increased emissions of N 2 O emissions from forest soils , harmful to the climate,the increased deposition of reactive nitrogen in the woods leads to a decrease in diversity of plant and animal species . The increase in emissions of nitrates also affects the water supply.
The ENA, a pioneering study that analyzes the multiple dangers of nitrogen pollution , puts special emphasis on the impact of nitrogen in Europe as it relates to climate change and biodiversity loss , specifying the regions at risk.
Referring to the importance of reducing nitrogen emissions , Dr Mark Sutton from the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in the UK , said: “ This is a very important finding. It follows that the emission of nitrogen into the atmosphere by industry and agriculture has an impact far greater than was assumed in nitrous gas emissions from soils . It is an argument that emphasizes the importance of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides and ammonia to protect the climate, air quality and biodiversity. ”
For his part, Professor Klaus Butterbach-Bahl of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Germany) said in presenting the ENA study: “The current rate of atmospheric reactive nitrogen deposition is too high.” This is also a researcher at the KIT Director, Department of Atmospheric Environmental Research Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU, Germany) and senior author of the ENA chapter devoted to the danger of reactive nitrogen to balance the emissions of greenhouse gases in Europe.
In related research, the teacher herself Butterbach-Bahl and colleagues say that atmospheric concentrations of N 2 O have skyrocketed “since preindustrial times by human interference with the global nitrogen cycle, livestock being a major source ’.
This research was supported in part by the NitroEurope (“The nitrogen cycle and its influence on the balance of greenhouse gases in Europe ‘), which received nearly 17 million through the area’ Sustainable development, global change and ecosystems’ s Sixth Framework Programme (FP6) of the EU.
Greenhouse Gases from Forest Soils
ScienceDaily (Apr. 12, 2011) - Reactive nitrogen compounds from agriculture, transport, industry and lead to Increased greenhouse gas Emissions of the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from forests in Europe . Nitrous oxide emission from forest soils is at least twice as high as Estimated by so far the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). This is one of the key messages of the first study on nitrogen in Europe (European Nitrogen Assessment, ENA) Being Presented at the International Conference “Nitrogen and Global Change 2011″ in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Reactive nitrogen compounds (eg NH 3 and NOx) are of anthropogenic origin Mainly. After deposition on forests via Their air, They Are Partly converted Into nitrous oxide (N 2 O).Following methane and carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide is the third biggest producer of the greenhouse effect . One kilogram of nitrous oxide is 300 times as greenhouse About-effective as the Same amount of carbon dioxide . The ENA study performed by more than 200 scientific and Political Experts from 21 countries and 89 Organisations Concludes That the input ofreactive nitrogen from air in the European forests so far Has Been Significantly underestimated . Based on the information now available, about 2 to 6% of the atmospheric reactive nitrogen is converted Into That nitrous oxide emitted from forest soil is Into the atmosphere again. The Corresponding estimate of the IPCC so far about 1% WAS only. Over a forest area of 188 million hectares, deposition of reactive nitrogen from 1860 to 2000 Increased by 1.5 million tons per year. This corresponds to an annual increase in reactive nitrogen per hectare forest by about 8 kilogrammes.
The Increased atmospheric input of reactive nitrogen from eating Mainly Fertilisation in agriculture and the associated volatilisation of ammonia and nitrogen oxide from the combustion Emissions due to fossil fuels or biomass of burning . Increased deposition of reactive nitrogen on forests does not only cause climate-Damaging nitrous oxide Emissions from forest soils, But Also a loss of diversity of plant and animals species and enhanced nitrate Emissions into water .
When the ENA study Presenting in Edinburgh, Professor Klaus Butterbach-Bahl emphasised: “The present atmospheric reactive nitrogen deposition is much too high. Our analysis shows significant That Reductions in Emissions from owners of agricultural ammonia are needed to reduce Activities nitrous Gas Emissions from forest soils . “Klaus Butterbach-Bahl is professor at Karlsruhe Institute of Technol-ogy (KIT). He is heading the Atmospheric Environmental Research Division of the Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK-IFU) and lead author of the ENA chapter on reactive nitrogen as a Threat to the European greenhouse balance.
The ENA is the first study study Describing the Multiple Threats of nitrogen Pollution , Including STI ecological and economic impacts, ie contribution to climate change STIs and Biodiversity loss on the European scale. The ENA study identifies the regions Also at Greatest Risk in Europe and outlines actions to be taken to reduce the Risks to Protect the environment and public health. The ENA study Conducted for the Air WAS Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and funded by the European Science Foundation. Parallel to the ENA presentation, a commentary by the lead editor Dr Mark Sutton from the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Great Britain, published in Nature WAS on 11 April. This commentary outlines why the Emissions Reduction of nitrogen is one of the main Challenges in the twenty-first century.
Dr Sutton commented: “This is an extremely Important finding. It Means That Into release nitrogen from the atmosphere and agriculture industry is much bigger Having a gas nitrous Impact on Emissions from soils than Previously Recognised. It Provides a weitere argument of why it is vital to reduce nitrogen oxides and Emissions of ammonia with Benefits all round for climate, air quality, and Biodiversity. ”