Everything You Always Wanted to Know About boson Higgs never dare to ask …
God particle, the origin of the mass of all other particles, the main purpose of the LHC, missing piece of the standard model … These qualifiers are enough to feed number of press headlines and news articles of world whole. However, they do not explain what this really famous particle. CERN in Bulletin part in the theoretical discovery of the Higgs boson before the LHC does so in practice (if it exists!).
Let’s be clear: if one assumes that the theories of physics are the most consensual correct, the universe is bathed in a sort of “ether” (a “field “In the vocabulary of physics) has not yet been discovered, the empty is not empty and the particles acquire mass through interaction with this field. Perhaps you’ve already guessed: the field in question is produced by the star particle, the Higgs boson.
The Higgs is the designation given to one of the researchers behind the theory of the same name. We think it would not electric charge Or spin . As for its mass, according to research conducted unsuccessful LEP and precise measurements of weak interactions, it would range between 114 GeV and 200 GeV. This estimate is correct if we remain strictly within the framework of the standard model, which combines the theories that form our current understanding of particle behavior. However in the context of theories beyond the Standard Model, its mass could reach 1 000 GeV up to this limit being set by the fundamental laws of nature. Estimates of the mass of the Higgs boson were used to define the technical parameters of the LHC, including the Energy of collision and brightness . “The parameters of the LHC and detector performance are optimized to discover the Higgs boson of the standard model, or anything else that could give mass to particles,” said Michelangelo Mangano, group theory. In other words, there is necessarily a particle to be discovered and the LHC will achieve. Remains whether it is bel and much of the Higgs boson, with the same properties as those predicted by the theory of the same name.
Why nature seems they have much need of this particle? In nature, there are two states of helicity for particulates, which can be “left” or “straight” (see box). “The particles are left vulnerable to the weak interaction, which radioactivity is the manifestation, unlike straight particles. The helicity acts as a sort of burden on the strength low, 1 for a particle left, 0 for right, “says Mangano. particles with mass can still be regarded as left or right, depending on the framework chosen by the observer (see below). However, a natural phenomenon may depend on a specific reference system used by researchers in their calculations, and sensitivity to particles the weak force can not be a property defined so little accurate. You understand the problem now : which may well eliminate the low charge of a particle left (1) it seems right (0)? On the other hand, how nature decides she or not to give a mass to a particle (causing the problem of helicity of the particle)?
According to the Higgs mechanism, the property is measured on a macroscopic scale as the “mass” is the result, in microscopic terms, a dynamic exchange of quanta between a particle with no mass and field in this the Universe. “A particle mass Rocking constant state of particle left to the right particle, exchanging a quantum of Higgs field load low with “ether”. The “ether” retains the low charge of the particle left when it becomes right. In this way, the burden is always kept low and no contradiction appears, “concluded Mr. Mangano.
That the Higgs boson is an elementary particle, as is the standard model, or whether a object more complex than this particle is unique, or that there are many, there is a new phenomenon is necessary to understand the presence of massive particles in a world where the left dominates the helicity. The LHC experiments should resolve this puzzle and find the end of the story. However, we must be patient … Given the complexity the problem and the scarcity of phenomena that could prove experimentally the existence of the boson, several years of collecting data and analysis will be needed to reconstruct the puzzle.
The particles left and right
In particle physics, the spin (S in the drawing below) is a fundamental property of particles, which is represented by a quantum number . The allowed values of S are: 0,1 / 2 1, 3 / 2, 2, etc.. The particles of half-integer spin are fermions. Among the fermions, we find electrons, positron , Quarks (which form protons and neutrons) and neutrinos. Particles of integer spin are bosons. Among the bosons, we find the Higgs boson, the gluonThe photonEtc.. Most of the known elementary bosons have spin equal to 1. The exceptions are the Higgs boson (the S should be equal to 0) and graviton (including S should be equal to 2).
The spin of a particle is used to define the helicity, that is to say, if a particle left or right: a particle is right if the direction of its spin is the same as that of his stroke. A particle is left if the direction of its spin is opposite to that of his movement.
However, because the direction of movement depends on the reference system, when one chooses a reference system that moves faster than the particle (which is always possible for massive particles that can not move at the speed of light), the particle will appear as the left in this frame of reference, although it has previously been regarded as right in another system.
|Category: physics||Tags: God particle, Higgs, Higgs boson, LHC|